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Tengok Dekat Kabur?

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En. Arman (M/45) datang untuk pemeriksaan mata, mengadu tengok dekat kabur. Beliau tak pernah pakai cermin mata.

Vision without glasses
R: 6/6
L: 6/6-

Subjective Refraction
R: +0.25 (6/6) (+1.00 blur lens test: 6/15)
L: +0.50 (6/6) (+1.00 blur lens test: 6/15) L>R
Add: +1.50 (R>L)

Other assessments show:

Cover Test
Distance: NMD
Near: NMD

Howell Card
Distance: 0 – 1 EP
Near: 4 – 6 XP

NPC
18/28cm, 18/28cm, 18/28cm, 18/28cm, 18/28cm

NPC (Add +2.00)
21/30cm, 21/30cm, 21/30cm

MEM
R: +0.25
L: +0.25

Fusional Reserves
Near, PFV: x/4/2
Near, NFV: 12/16/14
Distance, NFV: x/4/2
Distance, PFV: 6/25/18 (above 6^, double then single)

Vergence Facility
Near: 0cpm (double BI, double did not go closer with blink)
Distance: 7cpm (double BO, blink & single)

We repeated
Fusional Reserves
Near, PFV: x/25/20
Distance, NFV: x/8/6 (above 2^, double then single)

Interpupillary distance, IPD = 7.2cm

We prescribe multifocal glasses.

Notes

Vision without glasses
6/6 – smallest testing line
6/7.5 – 2nd smallest line
6/9 – 3rd smallest line
6/12 – 4th smallest line
6/15 – 5th
6/18 – 6th
6/21 – 7th
6/24 – 8th

Examination of Eye Alignment
Cover Test, CT @ Distance & Near
– NMD(No Movement Detected) or
– small XP, fast recovery
EP = Esophoria is misalignment of eye, eye is deviated inwards
XP = Exophoria is misalignment of eye, eye is deviated outwards

Examination of Eye Posture
(Howell Card) by 6^ BD OD
Distance:
– 0-3 XP (blue part) or
– 0-1 EP (yellow part)
Near:
– 0-6 XP (blue part)

Accommodation/Focusing analysis – ability to relax
NRA
+1.50 to +2.50

Accommodation/Focusing analysis – ability to focus
PRA
-1.37 to -3.37

Convergence, NPC – ability of eye to maintain a single clear near image (RAF rule)
Break/Recovery – within 10cm or TTN(to the nose)

AA(Amplitude Accommodation) – eye stamina (Dioptre, D) (RAF rule)
6yo – 16.5D | 6cm
9yo – 15.5D | 6.5cm
12yo – 14.5D | 7cm
15yo – 13.5D | 7.5cm
18yo – 12.5D | 8cm
21yo – 11.5D | 9cm
24yo – 10.5D | 10cm
27yo – 9.5D | 11cm
30yo – 8.5D | 12cm

MEM(Monocular Estimation Method) – measure accommodation response seeing near target
+0.25 to +0.75 (with movement)

Accommodation Facility – ability to change focus: far to near or near to far) by Flipper +/- 2.00
Monocular: 6cpm – 16cpm
Binocular: 4cpm – 14cpm
(1 cycle per minute, cpm = 2 words)

Fusional Reserves –
Convergent/Divergent reserve stamina (Prism Bar)
Blur/Break/Recovery
Children 7-12yo
Near, BO PFV: x/15-31/10-22
Near, BI NFV: x/7-17/3-11
Adult
Near, BO PFV: x/10-28/7-21
Near, BI NFV: x/7-19/5-15
Distance, BO PFV: x/4-18/5-9
Distance, BI NFV: x/4-10/2-6

Vergence Facility  – ability to make rapid repetitive vergence changes (Prism Flipper 12BO & 3BI)
Distance: 12-18 cpm
Near: 12-18 cpm)
(1 cycle = 2 times clearing target)