You are currently viewing Tak Nampak Tulisan Kecil & Mata Berair Tengok Hp?

Tak Nampak Tulisan Kecil & Mata Berair Tengok Hp?

  • Post author:
  • Post category:Uncategorized

Nadia (F/43) datang untuk pemeriksaan mata, mengadu tak nampak dekat, sakit mata & mata berair tengok hp.. beliau ada kerja cashier kaunter. Dulu2 akak selalu rasa mata sakit & berair, sekarang ada kurang sikit.

Vision without glasses
R: 6/7.5-
L: 6/7.5-

Subjective Refraction
R: PL/-0.50×160 (6/6-) (+1.00 blur test: 6/12)
L: PL/-0.50×30 (6/6-) (+1.00 blur test: 6/12)
Add: +1.50 (N5@40cm)

Other assessments show:

Cover Test
Distance: NMD
Near: small to moderate XP, fast recovery (LE shows bigger XP movement than in RE)

Howell Card
Distance: 0
Near: 10 XP
-1.00 Near: 10 XP

NRA
+0.25

PRA
-0.25

NPC
14/18cm, 14/18cm, 14/18cm, 14/18cm, 14/18cm

NPC (Add +2.00)
14/18cm, 14/18cm, 14/18cm

Fusional Reserves
Near, PFV: x/x/x
Near, NFV: 10/16/14
Distance, NFV: x/12/4
Distance, PFV: x/12/6

Vergence Facility
Near: 6 cpm (slow BO)
Distance: 0 cpm (double BO)

We repeated
Fusional Reserves
Near, NFV: x/12/10

Interpupillary distance, IPD = 6.0cm

Fluorescein
R: -ve staining
L: -ve staining

Slit Lamp
R: mild cataract
L: mild cataract, nasal pterygium

Pterygium = selaput luaran (disebabkan oleh sinaran UV)

Bila umur kita cecah 40 tahun, kita akan ada rabun membaca.. yang mana kita mula tengok kabur pada tulisan kecil.. dan ia normal untuk semua orang. Ini disebabkan oleh kanta semulajadi dalam mata kita yang sudah kurang fleksibel untuk buat kerja fokus dekat.. maka, kita perlu guna cermin untuk bantu fokus dekat supaya kita dapat nampak yang kecik2.. dan teruskan perjuangan kehidupan kita!

Notes

Vision without glasses
6/6 – smallest testing line
6/7.5 – 2nd smallest line
6/9 – 3rd smallest line
6/12 – 4th smallest line
6/15 – 5th
6/18 – 6th
6/21 – 7th
6/24 – 8th

Examination of Eye Alignment
Cover Test, CT @ Distance & Near
– NMD(No Movement Detected) or
– small XP, fast recovery
EP = Esophoria is misalignment of eye, eye is deviated inwards
XP = Exophoria is misalignment of eye, eye is deviated outwards
ACT: alternating CT

Examination of Eye Alignment
(Maddox Rod) placed on RE

Examination of Eye Posture
(Howell Card) by 6^ BD OD
Distance:
– 0-3 XP (blue part) or
– 0-1 EP (yellow part)
Near:
– 0-6 XP (blue part)

Accommodation/Focusing analysis – ability to relax
NRA
+1.50 to +2.50

Accommodation/Focusing analysis – ability to focus
PRA
-1.37 to -3.37

Convergence, NPC – ability of eye to maintain a single clear near image (RAF rule)
Break/Recovery – within 10cm or TTN(to the nose)

AA(Amplitude Accommodation) – eye stamina (Dioptre, D) (RAF rule)
6yo – 16.5D | 6cm
9yo – 15.5D | 6.5cm
12yo – 14.5D | 7cm
15yo – 13.5D | 7.5cm
18yo – 12.5D | 8cm
21yo – 11.5D | 9cm
24yo – 10.5D | 10cm
27yo – 9.5D | 11cm
30yo – 8.5D | 12cm

MEM(Monocular Estimation Method) – measure accommodation response seeing near target
+0.25 to +0.75 (with movement)

Accommodation Facility – ability to change focus: far to near or near to far) by Flipper +/- 2.00
Monocular: 6cpm – 16cpm
Binocular: 4cpm – 14cpm
(1 cycle per minute, cpm = 2 words)

Fusional Reserves –
Convergent/Divergent reserve stamina (Prism Bar)
Blur/Break/Recovery
Children 7-12yo
Near, BO/PFV: x/15-31/10-22
Near, BI/NFV: x/7-17/3-11
Adult
Near, BO/PFV: x/10-28/7-21
Near, BI/NFV: x/7-19/5-15
Distance, BO/PFV: x/4-18/5-9
Distance, BI/NFV: x/4-10/2-6

Vergence Facility  – ability to make rapid repetitive vergence changes (Prism Flipper 12BO & 3BI)
Distance: 12-18 cpm
Near: 12-18 cpm)
(1 cycle = 2 times clearing target)

Random Dot 3S – 3D Vision/Stereopsis 
12.5″

Worth 4 Dots – Binocular Perception 4 dots