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Brief Curtain-like Sheet Blocking Vision Recently?

Fanny (F/50) came for eye examination, with complaint of sometimes dim vision & about 5 to 6 times of brief curtain-like sheet blocking her vision in left eye since two weeks ago. She recently knocked her head on something hard about three weeks ago. No eye pain/reduced vision is reported. She has family history of glaucoma.

Vision without glasses
R: 6/7.5-
L: 6/6 (better)

Subjective Refraction
R: -0.25 (6/6) (+1.00 blur test: 6/12)
L: PL (6/6) (+1.00 blur test: 6/12)
Add: +1.75 (N5@40cm)

Other assessments show:

Cover Test
Distance: NMD
Near: small XP, fast recovery

Howell Card
Distance: 1 EP
Near: 2 – 4 XP
-1.00 Near: 2 XP



RE deviates at 9cm

Fusional Reserves
Near, PFV: x/8/4
Near, NFV: x/4/2

Interpupillary distance, IPD = 6.0cm

Colour Vision
R: normal
L: normal

Amsler Grid
R: normal
L: some distorted lines

Worth 4 Dots
R: 4 dots
L: 4 dots

Pupil Reflex
R: -ve RAPD
L: -ve RAPD

R: -ve staining
L: -ve staining

R: 3s
L: 3s

Lid & Adnexa
L: heavy, droopy-like upper eyelid

Slit Lamp
R: very mild cataract
L: very mild cataract

We refer her to see eye specialist doctor/ophthalmologist.


Vision without glasses
6/6 – smallest testing line
6/7.5 – 2nd smallest line
6/9 – 3rd smallest line
6/12 – 4th smallest line
6/15 – 5th
6/18 – 6th
6/21 – 7th
6/24 – 8th

Examination of Eye Alignment
Cover Test, CT @ Distance & Near
– NMD(No Movement Detected) or
– small XP, fast recovery
EP = Esophoria is misalignment of eye, eye is deviated inwards
XP = Exophoria is misalignment of eye, eye is deviated outwards
ACT: alternating CT

Examination of Eye Alignment
(Maddox Rod) placed on RE

Examination of Eye Posture
(Howell Card) by 6^ BD OD
– 0-3 XP (blue part) or
– 0-1 EP (yellow part)
– 0-6 XP (blue part)

Accommodation/Focusing analysis – ability to relax
+1.50 to +2.50

Accommodation/Focusing analysis – ability to focus
-1.37 to -3.37

Convergence, NPC – ability of eye to maintain a single clear near image (RAF rule)
Break/Recovery – within 10cm or TTN(to the nose)

AA(Amplitude Accommodation) – eye stamina (Dioptre, D) (RAF rule)
6yo – 16.5D | 6cm
9yo – 15.5D | 6.5cm
12yo – 14.5D | 7cm
15yo – 13.5D | 7.5cm
18yo – 12.5D | 8cm
21yo – 11.5D | 9cm
24yo – 10.5D | 10cm
27yo – 9.5D | 11cm
30yo – 8.5D | 12cm

MEM(Monocular Estimation Method) – measure accommodation response seeing near target
+0.25 to +0.75 (with movement)

Accommodation Facility – ability to change focus: far to near or near to far) by Flipper +/- 2.00
Monocular: 6cpm – 16cpm
Binocular: 4cpm – 14cpm
(1 cycle per minute, cpm = 2 words)

Fusional Reserves –
Convergent/Divergent reserve stamina (Prism Bar)
Children 7-12yo
Near, BO/PFV: x/15-31/10-22
Near, BI/NFV: x/7-17/3-11
Near, BO/PFV: x/10-28/7-21
Near, BI/NFV: x/7-19/5-15
Distance, BO/PFV: x/4-18/5-9
Distance, BI/NFV: x/4-10/2-6

Vergence Facility  – ability to make rapid repetitive vergence changes (Prism Flipper 12BO & 3BI)
Distance: 12-18 cpm
Near: 12-18 cpm)
(1 cycle = 2 times clearing target)

Random Dot 3S – 3D Vision/Stereopsis 

Worth 4 Dots – Binocular Perception 4 dots